When it comes to creating a unique gastronomic experience, many chefs and mixologists turn to smoke. Sneaking smokey flavors into unusual ingredients such as goat cheese, butter, ice and raw vegetables can really create an element of surprise for the guest. It’s often a question of “how’d they do that?” The answer, The Smoking Gun™ by PolyScience.
Most commonly, the flavors of smoke come from kiln-dried hardwoods. We often turn to applewood, hickory and whiskey barrel for smoke flavors that vary from subtle to aggressive. Many chefs and mixologists, however, are turning to more unusual ingredients like licorice root, vanilla beans, chicory, coffee beans, black peppercorn, oolong tea, ras el hanout…just to name a few.
Check out BBQ Master, Peter De Clercq’s recipe using chicory as a smoke element.
GRILLED SEA BASS WITH VANILLA POTATOES SMOKED WITH CHICORY ROOT
We’ve adapted this recipe from Peter’s book BBQ – A Party, available on Amazon.
1.75 lbs (800 g) Sea Bass, skin on and descaled, cut into four filets
2.2 lbs (1 kg) Yellow Fingerling Potatoes, peeled
7/8 cup (200 mL) Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Salt and Ground Black Pepper, to taste
1 pinch, Mace, ground
1 Vanilla bean
Fish Marinade (Recipe Below)
Herbs for Fish (Recipe Below)
Herbs for Vegetables (Recipe Below)
For The Smoking Gun™
2 t Chicory, finely ground
2 Cups (0.5 liters) Vegetable Oil
1 Cup (250 mL) garlic and fine herb oil
1 cup / 2.5 dl basil oil
1-1/2 Tbs / 20 g fennel seeds
6 cloves of garlic, whole 4 bay leaves
4 sprigs of lemon thyme
2 tsp / 10 g curry powder
2 tsp / 10 g oregano
Combine all ingredients and infuse overnight.
Herbs for Fish (Dry Rub) Toast these ingredients in a steel skillet and grind the mixture in a coffee grinder.
1-3/4 C (500 g) Sea Salt
1⁄2 C (50 g) Dried Dill
1⁄4 C / 25 g Fennel Seed
1⁄4 C / 25 g Dried Parsley
2 Tbs / 25 g Paprika
1 Tbs / 12 g Cayenne Pepper
1 Tbs / 12 g Curry Powder
Then combine this with:
1⁄2 tsp (2 g) Ground Ginger
1 tsp (4 g) Turmeric Powder
1⁄2 tsp (2 g)Curry Powder
1/8 tsp (1 g) Ground Mace
2 tsp (10 g) Sea Salt
Herbs for Vegetables
1-1/2 T (20 g) Ground Coriander Seeds
1 T (15 g) Ground Cumin
1 t (5 g) Mustard Seeds
1-1/2 t (8 g) Black Peppercorns
Boil or steam the fingerling potatoes. Mash into a puree and season with olive oil, pepper, salt and mace. Slice the vanilla bean open and scrape to remove the seeds. Mix vanilla seeds into the potato puree.
Slice the leeks into 1-1/2 in / 4 cm sections and steam them until al dente.
Rub the four sea bass with fish marinade and season with herbs for fish.
Grill the sea bass for about 8 minutes.
Rub the leeks with fish marinade and season with herbs for vegetables. Grill leeks alongside fish for about 4 minutes. Turn regularly to ensure even grilling.
Serve the fish on a bed of potato puree and lay the leeks alongside.
Drizzle with extra virgin olive oil.
Cover dish with a glass dome and fill with chicory smoke using The Smoking Gun™.
Does your circulator look like it’s been to the beach?
Calcium deposits can lead to burnt out motors and costly repairs. To clean your circulator of mineral deposits, simply run the unit with a 15% Distilled White Vinegar to water solution at 65°C/149°F for 20-60 minutes. If the build up is heavy, try a 10% CLR or Lime-Away solution.
Grease or food build build-up can also cause added stress on the pump motor.
Run the circulator at 72°C/161°F with a solution of dish soap and water to remove these deposits. We highly recommend running the vinegar solution at least once a month. If you are frequently cooking eggs, clean your circulator once a week.
For easy access to the CHEF Series heating coils take a look at our quick-access fasteners available through our website. These make removing the back panel a breeze.
Have one of our 7306 models? This unit was originally designed for laboratory use where sous vide bags coming into contact with the coils wasn’t an issue. We have since developed a protective cage that prevents bags from coming into contact with the heating coils. That can lead to food loss and a huge mess in your bath (gross!), not to mention, the possibility of expensive repairs.
Alex and Aki, at Ideas in Food, recently picked up a Rotary Vacuum Evaporator from us with some wild ideas brewing in their heads. While the concept of distillation isn’t new, culinary rotovap applications by chefs have only been stirring for the past 5-6 years.
Alex and I started discussing vacuum evaporation at a conference last year, but the thought wasn’t distillation, it was concentration. What if flavor concentrations could occur without cooking the product? Well, we distilled the alcohol out of a bottle of ruby port. On the receiving side of of the unit sat moonshine, reminiscent of grappa. Yes, we tasted it. It was blindingly horrid; and yes, we disposed of it. On the evaporation side was something truly beautiful: potential. The potential of the raw, non-alcoholic port redux showed us that flavors concentrate so well that we immediately saw flashes of apple butter, ketchup and much more. If anybody knows Alex, his flashes happen at strobe-like speeds. The spark ignited and Alex was off and running. We’re incredibly excited to see what Alex and Aki think up next. This is just the beginning.
Check out the progress in their rotary evaporation adventures here:
When Cooking Sous Vide, Food Safety Should be Your #1 Priority
By: Philip Preston
The sous vide cooking method can provide tremendous culinary benefits in both home and professional kitchens. Most notably, the method allows users to control heat with extraordinary precision. In fact, no other process enables both chefs and home cooks to monitor temperature with such ease. However, as with any cooking method, technology alone cannot guarantee results if it is not used correctly.
Fundamentals of food safety are especially important when cooking sous vide because the easy-of-use nature that makes the method so attractive, may also create complacency among users. Consequently, even seemingly basic and logical kitchen safety steps should be reviewed by everyone involved to avoid potential problems.
Always use only the freshest ingredients.
Ensure hands, tools, and work surfaces are clean.
Move products directly from refrigerated storage to preheated baths.
Don’t overload preheated baths with cold products because temperature recovery times may be significantly lengthened
When undertaking cook-and-chill recipes, use an ice bath to chill rapidly.
If a bag becomes bloated, it could be a sign of bacteria spoilage and should not be used.
Taking safety a step further, PolyScience has developed unique software that models the thermal conductivity of proteins in both heated water and ice baths to help you make informed cooking decisions. More specifically, the PolyScience Sous Vide Toolbox iPhone / iPad Application is a practical tool for predicting core temperatures and provides valuable insights into pathogen reduction. Users simply enter the type of protein being cooked along with its shape, size, starting temperature, and desired core temperature, and the application automatically calculates the minimum cook time.
Although the software is already a truly remarkable tool that should be used by everyone cooking sous, we didn’t stop there. Instead, we continually seek new perspectives. Most recently, we enlisted the help of the Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management’s O. Peter Snyder Jr., Ph.D., a leading food safety expert. Dr. Snyder concluded that the PolyScience Sous Vide Toolbox application “… is a professional aid to determining the time required for heating muscle foods in a controlled temperature water bath. Safety of a sous vide process is always verified by measuring the final core temperature of the food product with a temperature probe and meeting government food safety standards.”
Dr. Snyder has also provided detailed insights to help our customers even better understand and minimize sous vide associated food safety risks (see our website at: www.polyscienceculinary.com/DrSnyder).
Sous vide products are foods such as meat, fish, poultry, fruits and vegetables that have been sealed under vacuum in a low-oxygen-transmission plastic film pouch, and the pouch is immersed in a constant-temperature water bath and cooked for a time that provides adequate reduction of pathogenic vegetative bacteria and a desired tenderization. Meat shrinkage in cooking meat, poultry, and fish does not take place significantly until the meat temperature is 130ºF or hotter. Typically, the tougher the meat, the richer and better the flavor – but drier – unless these tougher cuts – briskets, flanks, and ribs – are cooked sous vide in a sealed pouch, where all of the juices are retained, and the temperature is low enough so as to not cause muscle shrinkage. The foods cooked in this manner are generally thin, less than two inches thick. Cooking times in a moderate temperature water bath can be a couple of hours in order to get the food center temperature to 130ºF or above. People believe that cooking is for a desired quality. Actually, the primary purpose of cooking is to pasteurize the food to reduce vegetative pathogens to meet a Food Safety Objective (FSO) that provides an Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) to assure safety.
There are no significant chemical or physical hazards associated with sous vide cooking. The question is: What are the biological hazards? There are two classes of pathogens in sous vide meat, fish, and poultry products – vegetative pathogens and spore pathogens. Vegetative pathogens are destroyed as a function of time as temperatures reach 130ºF. They are killed slowly at about 130ºF, with a 6.5-log reduction of Salmonella (the target organism) at 112 minutes. At 140ºF, Salmonella dies 10 times faster, or 12 minutes. At 158ºF, it is considered to be an instant 6.5-log reduction of Salmonella.
After the food is pasteurized – received a 6.5-log reduction of Salmonella – there are still the spore pathogens, specifically, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium botulinum, which are not destroyed by pasteurization, but rather, have been activated. So, when the hot food begins to cool and gets below 130ºF, spores can germinate and grow out. Cooling from 135 to 41ºF in 6 hours (FDA Food Code cooling) assures that there is no significant spore germination.
Since most sous vide products are thin, cooling is not a significant risk. Pasteurization is the critical control. The only way one can know that proper times and temperatures have been met is to measure food temperature, which is done with a needle / thin-tipped thermocouple probe that penetrates the pouch. First, a piece of sealing foam tape, specially designed to aid in the temperature measurement of sous vide products, is placed on the pouch. Then, the needle probe is directed through the tape, punctures the pouch, and is inserted into the center of the food to measure its center temperature. It is crucial to assure that consumers of the food will not become ill due to Salmonella, E. coli, or other vegetative pathogens. Therefore, the food must get an adequate dose of heat and time to reduce the vegetative pathogens by 6.5 log, which is further complicated by trying to take the center temperature of the meat, fish, or poultry.
Then why are there so few problems? First of all, meats being cooked by sous vide are usually from inside cuts of meat (e.g., steaks), fish, and poultry, which are protected during the slaughter process and do not contain 100,000 pathogens per gram, as an outside cut (e.g., brisket, flank) would contain. The surface of these inside cuts contains fewer pathogens, and their center is virtually pathogen free. These inside cuts would have, for instance, 10 pathogens per gram. Therefore, there are not many organisms to kill. In terms of safe cooking time at 130ºF, 20 minutes is probably adequate, even though the regulations require 112 minutes for a 6.5-log Salmonella reduction at 130ºF.
Also inherent to the sous vide process is the length of time (e.g., 2 to 4 hours) in order to get the desired tenderness that the cook wants to achieve. If there are foods that do contain high pathogen counts, any surface treatment would kill most of the vegetative pathogens, because the center does not have high levels of pathogens. An exception would be cooking a ground product (e.g., spiced meat pate), whereby the pathogens have been ground into the middle of the food being cooked by sous vide.
In summary, sous vide cooking must be done carefully and precisely to assure that government standards are met. Government standards, however, are very conservative, because pathogens on typical meat, fish, and poultry sous vide products are on the surface, which gets a longer cook time than the center. The sous vide process leads towards adequate times at temperatures to get sufficient reduction of pathogens to assure that no customer will become ill eating the sous vide product. Finally, the temperature of the cooked and cooled pasteurized food is critical, which should be 41ºF or less to assure that the very deadly C. botulinum does not germinate, multiply, and produce its lethal toxin.
Both Science and Flavor: How Sous-Vide Has Impacted American Restaurants
Considering its origins in a culinary niche, sous-vide’s expansion throughout the United State’s restaurant industry has been exceptionally rapid. Gaining its foundations as a French cooking innovation in the 1960s, it’s unsurprising to see why the method has caught on so fast with professional chefs and restaurateurs. That being said, it’s an exceptionally innovative, if not unusual, method whose emergence could be called anything but ‘expected’.
Sous-Vide is, as it was during its early days of commercial innovation, a vacuum-based method of food preparation. Not purely a cooking style as much as it is a distinct branch of food science, sous-vide involves precisely sealing the heart of a meal – be it lamb, chicken, or lentil – and subsequently allow the dish to immerse in its own ingredients. The method was first pioneered by a cadre of veteran French chefs, with a notable role taken by Bruno Goussault, and had begun to gain the attention of American chefs by the 1980s. Goussault himself was responsible for chartering Cuisine Solutions, which stands as America’s first major distributors of sous-vide products.
So, taking all this into consideration, what was sous-vide’s major appeal? One of the cooking method’s biggest selling points is that it simultaneously preserves food while augmenting flavor. One of the greatest challenges American restaurants have faced is working around the supply chain. Getting high-quality products, and working with fresh meats, are oftentimes contradictory aims. Even with refrigeration and food packaging having come as far as they have in recent years, there are plenty of situations where the resources at hand come up wanting. One of the myriad benefits of sous-vide is that the vacuum sealing process keeps freshness while also preserving flavor and texture that would otherwise be lost.
Both meat and vegetable preparations sealed through the sous-vide method spend their time prior to preparation actually benefitting from being under wraps. While clearly a food manufacturing method that’s intended for more serious restaurants, sous-vide actually allows the time lapse between production and meal cooking to enrich the food rather than deaden flavor. This is among the foremost reason that the sous-vide cooking method has caught on so swiftly with restaurants across the continental United States. Its ability to surmounts complications from the supply chain and transform these difficulties into a boon has sparked an industry-wide affection for the method.
Ultimately, it’s not difficult to see why a cooking method that was founded overseas only half a century ago has caught on so fast in the United States. America’s restaurant industry is both profitable and notoriously competitive, and exceptionally innovative cooking methods spread through our culinary industry like wildfire. To Sous-Vide’s even greater favor, it’s as pragmatic as it is innovative, which only bodes well for the preparation style’s growing popularity.
Over the past few weeks, we’ve found ourselves in Madrid, Manchester, Helsinki, Lyon, Orlando, Boston, Charlotte, New York and have even been able to squeeze in a few days in Sweet Home Chicago. We’ve been busy. Here’s the haps.
SIRHA 2013 – Lyon, France
We arrived in Lyon and got right to work. The Eurexpo was banging and buzzing with hammers, saws and forklifts as the booths around us took shape. Our booth went up and we were ready to go.
The SIRHA Expo is one of Europe’s largest culinary trade shows, pairing alongside the Bocuse D’Or and World Pastry Championship in the same complex. Needless to say, it’s a draw. This year, over 175,000 guests attended the expo. It’s a good thing we brushed up on our French. Cuisson sous vide? Thermoplonger? Oui!
The North American Food Equipment Manufacturer’s Show is one of the top equipment shows for the culinary industry. Every major manufacturer seems to exhibit at NAFEM, offering one-stop shopping when checking out everything you need for your restaurant. While sous vide equipment was not eligible for exhibition, PolyScience was there to support major manufacturers, Randell/Unified Brands, Vollrath and Montague, who featured PolyScience sous vide integration in their equipment. Special thanks to Michael Williams and Chance Hunt of Randell/Unified Brands for their Sous Vide Prep Table, which was on display in the “What’s Hot? What’s Cool?” new and innovative product showcase.
AAAS Show 2013
The American Academy for the Advancement of Science Show brought us to Boston a week after (name of blizzard). The snow was piled high, but not enough to hide Boston’s charm and beauty. We made our way to the John B. Hynes Convention Center to set up the booth. Since PolyScience manufactures both laboratory and culinary equipment, it felt fitting to showcase both, especially when you consider our special guest – Nathan Myhrvold of Intellectual Ventures, The Cooking Lab and Modernist Cuisine. On Saturday, Nathan was kind enough to stop by the booth to sign copies of Modernist Cuisine and Modernist Cuisine at Home for the lucky fans that stopped through. Later that day, Nathan gave an outstanding plenary lecture to nearly 5,000 attendees. The scope of the lecture focused on Modernist Cuisine, and with an audience of physicists, biologists, chemists, Nathan spared no geekery, including in-depth looks at Fourier’s law, conservation of energy, James Watt and several gratuitous high-speed video shots.
PolyScience at SIRHA 2013
What’s Hot? Sous Vide!
The Sous Vide Prep Table by Randell
The Sous Vide Prep Table by Randell
Sous Vide by PolyScience, featured by Vollrath
Sous Vide by PolyScience, featured by Vollrath
The PolyScience Sous Vide Professional CLASSIC Series at Montague
Plenary Lecture by Nathan Myhrvold of Modernist Cuisine
The traditions of turkey, stuffing and cranberry sauce ruminate through every American soul. We’ve compiled a few of our own favorite recipes, showcased some fan favorites and, of course, offered up a few new ones. Do you have a favorite sous … Continue reading →
We frequently get asked: What is the cost of electricity to run the Sous Vide Professional? So we performed some research and testing to find out for ourselves!
We used average costs of utilities in the USA as of September 2010 – electricity at $0.132 per kilowatt/hour and natural gas at $1.062 per therm.
There are two stages to the heat up/cook process when using the PolyScienceSous Vide Professional – initial heat up and holding (cooking).
During the initial heat up, more power is consumed as the unit heats at full power to reach the desired temperature. The duration of this step can be greatly shortened by starting with hot water. For our experiment, we started with cold tap water at 9°C (48.2°F). Cost of initial heat up: $0.15. Had we started with hot water, the cost and duration would be reduced by more than half.
We then vacuum sealed a 2lb beef tenderloin and allowed it to cook for two hours at 59°C (138.2°F). Cost of 2 hours of cooking at 59°C: $0.06. This makes our total electricity cost $0.21.
For more information about the cost benefits of sous vide, check out this post on our blog for a number of ways cooking sous vide can actually reduce costs of labor and raw materials. You might also find this case study by Chef Chris Windus interesting, where he discusses how sous vide has helped him to increase efficiency without compromising quality.
What water bath volume can be handled?
PolyScience Sous Vide Professional (120V & 240V) and the model Sous Vide 7306C (120V) control vessels up to 30 liter / 8 gallons. For larger vessels simply use 2 machines. That simply doubles the capacity and still provides flexibility to run 2 smaller separate baths if needed.
The Sous Vide 7306C with 240 Volt controls up to 40 liter / 10.5 gallons. It has a stronger heater with 1600 Watt.
What is the reason for limiting heating power with Sous Vide circulators?
The difference between all models available is small. The primary objective for an immersion circulator is to keep temperature constant and precise and not to heat water as quickly as possible. Higher heater power would bring other issues, like triggering fuses, larger footprint of the unit, higher cost and higher risks in safety.
How can I optimize the heating capacity of my Sous Vide Professional?
Apply the same thinking as you do for any other process when heating a large amount of water, i.e. cooking a large pot of pasta. Cover the tank with a lid or plastic wrap, insulate the vessel for example by stacking 2 Cambro tanks and creating an insulating air pillow.
We love when we meet people that are curious and ask: “How can your equipment help our restaurant?”
One year ago in NYC at the StarChefs.com International Chefs Congress, we were asked this question by Martina Priadka, General Manager of the Dakota Jazz Club and Restaurant in downtown Minneapolis. She was inspired by her team, Chefs Derek Moran (a sous vide veteran) and Chef Kristin Tyborski, to learn more about the benefits.
Not long after, they started to add PolyScience sous vide equipment to their kitchen and changed their menu. One year later, the results are exactly what we hoped for. We are especially thankful for this amazing video they put together, allowing us to share with chefs around the world.
As with any food process, sous vide requires specified food handling practices to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the food biological, chemical, and physical hazards to a safe level.
Three important aspects require additional attention:
When food is vacuum packed Vacuum-packaged food creates an anaerobic (oxygen-free) or reduced oxygen environment. With improper food handling, some of the most dangerous bacteria can grow, such as salmonella and botulism. Safe food handling and hygiene standards should always be maintained.
Food cooked at low temperatures for extended periods of time can cause bacteria to multiply rapidly. The longer food is in the “danger zone” — temperatures between 40°F and 140°F (4.4°C to 60°C) — the faster bacteria can multiply and the more dangerous they can become.
When food in pouch has finished the required cooking time, it has to be removed and served immediately, or rapidly chilled. Cooling must be less than 6 hours from 130 to 41ºF.
Carefully read and incorporate these detailed guidelines into your cooking method to assure safety in each step. Prerequisites to food preparation.
Make sure that the refrigerator is 41ºF or colder. The colder the refrigerator, the slower the spoilage of ingredients.
Get an accurate digital food thermometer to check the temperature of the raw and cooked food to assure that it reached a desired end point.
Get the plastic pouches that the food will be packaged in. Make sure that they are not contaminated.
Use detergent, warm water, wash , and rinse the food contact surfaces. Sanitize the surfaces with a solution of 1 teaspoon chlorine bleach per gallon of water to prevent cross-contamination.
Be sure to separate the raw ingredient preparation area from the finished product area, or wash, rinse, and sanitize a surface when changing from raw preparation to finished food.
Sous vide processing.
The basic steps of the sous vide process are shown in the following flow chart. Details to each step are provided below the flow chart.
Prepare the work area. Put away unnecessary objects. Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces, and store chemicals so that they cannot contaminate the food.
Get fresh ingredients. Sous vide cannot make spoiled ingredients taste good. It amplifies the flavors and should only be applied to the freshest ingredients.
Trim, cut, and prepare ingredients. Remember, the thicker the protein ingredient, the longer it takes to come to its cooking temperature. Less than 2 inch thickness is a practical maximum thickness. Weigh additives carefully. Safe cook times can be calculated in PolyScience iPhone/iPad app “Sous Vide Toolbox”
Package / vacuum seal. The purpose of the vacuum is to pull the plastic pouch film tight to the food for good heat transfer. Check the seal.
Cook / pasteurize. Reduce vegetative pathogens such as Salmonella 5 log (100,000 to 1). Cooking / pasteurization begins about 130ºF.
Hold at cooking temperature until desired degree of doneness is achieved.
Cool fast enough to prevent the outgrowth of spores.
Cold hold meat, poultry, and vegetables at 41ºF to prevent the outgrowth of spores and slow growth of spoilage organisms.
Warm (reheating) and serve.
Set Up Sous Vide Professional and Water Bath
Clamp Sous Vide Professional to a stockpot or any other vessel. Fill with water up to maximum level, indicated on Sous Vide Professional.
To guarantee precise temperature control, refer to user manual for maximum water volume. For example the Sous Vide Professional CHEF Series has a maximum of seven gallons or twenty eight liters of water. A second Sous Vide Professional may be required to maintain the level of precise temperature control with larger volumes.
Set the Sous Vide Professional to desired temperature. Cover bath with lid or plastic wrap for efficient heat-up time and to avoid evaporation.
Get fresh ingredients; Trim, cut, and prepare ingredients.
One must start with very fresh ingredients in order to assure that off-flavors from spoilage are minimal and are not amplified in the cooking method. Also, by focusing on freshness, it will assure lower spoilage bacteria counts at the start of refrigerated storage so that the finished product will have a longer refrigerated shelf life.
It is safer if you use solid, not ground or punctured, pieces of meat, poultry, or fish. When it is punctured, it becomes critical that, not just the surface, but the center of the food get hot enough for long enough to be pasteurized.
Since cooking is done in a plastic pouch, there is no loss of flavor volatiles in sous vide cooking.
Package / vacuum seal.
The vacuum is not for flavor. It is to have a good heat transfer between the water bath and the surface of the food.
Assure that food-grade quality plastic pouches that have not become contaminated in storage are used; 2-3 ml plastic is adequate. If zip-loc type bags are used, assure that they are heat-safe to the temperatures you will be cooking at.
Make sure food is refrigerated at 38°F (3.3°C) or below until ready to seal.
To ensure precise and even cooking, arrange pieces of food in the plastic bag in a single layer.
Check vacuum bag for proper seal before cooking.
As bags are sealed, check to be sure that there was no crease in the plastic and that the seal is uniform with an even fusing from one side to the other.
After sealing, immediately cook or refrigerate food at 38°F (3.3°C) or below until ready to cook (see storing tips on the following page).
Cook / pasteurize.
Insert vacuum-sealed bag only when bath has reached correct temperature.
Follow time and temperatures guidelines and consider increasing cooking time if food has a larger diameter than specified in the recipe.
Cooking time increases by a factor of almost 4 times per extra inch. If you only double the time per inch, it will be unsafe!
In case you are not able to remove all the air due to limitations of your vacuum sealer, you can weigh down the pouch with a heavy porcelain plate to ensure it is fully submerged. This is important to ensure safe cooking results.
If you cook more than one vacuum bag, make sure they are not too close to each other.
Make sure to hold the pouch under the water so that it is fully cooked. Food safety times and temperatures are based on center temperatures of the food.
Check temperature and sealed vacuum bag frequently during cooking process. A bag that suddenly begins to float, inflate, or leak is a sign of food-safety issues. Discard food and clean tank and Sous Vide Professional.
If during cooking in the water bath, the bag balloons and floats to the surface, a seal has failed, or the temperature is too hot and steam has formed in the package, or there is a pinhole. The package must be thrown away, because you do not know if there was adequate heat transfer and pasteurization was effective.
Always measure the internal temperature of foods before serving. You can re-seal a pouch and continue cooking if necessary.
If you are making more than one pouch, a very smart thing to do is to sample the first pouch removed from cooking. Take your digital thermometer and verify the center temperature of the food. Also sample the flavor of the product. If it needs more cooking, you can reseal the pouch and continue to cook.
If you are cooking fish to a temperature of less than 130ºF, there are parasite and vegetative pathogen risks. Undercooked fish should have been frozen at -4ºF for 7 days to assure the destruction of the parasite, and the customer should be informed that undercooked food has some illness risk.
There will be two primary biological hazards in the meat, poultry, fish, vegetables or fruit that are cooked sous vide.
The first hazard is vegetative pathogens, and the regulatory target is Salmonella. The goal is to cook the food in the pouch to a time and temperature to reduce Salmonella 100,000-to-1. This will reduce the Salmonella from a maximum of 1,000 per gram in the raw food to 1 per 100 grams in the finished food. Salmonella is used as the target organism, because it has been, and continues to be, a major cause of illness and kills an estimated 500 people each year.
The government-specified times and temperatures for this pasteurization are:
instant (less than 1 second)
The second biological hazard common to the ingredients from the water and land farms are the spores, Clostridium botulinum [proteolytic (meat, poultry) and non-proteolytic (fish, seafood)], Bacillus cereus (cereal products), and Clostridium perfringens (meat, poultry, lentils).
When the food is pasteurized, Salmonella is reduced to an Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), but pasteurization temperatures have no kill effect on the spores. Pasteurization just activates the spore.
It’s a rule-of-thumb that if you cook below 130°F (54.4°C) there is an increased risk for vegetative pathogen and parasite development. However, food safety depends on a combination of temperature, time, pH level and the freshness of the ingredients. Extended cooking time pasteurizes food and reduces potential Salmonella to an appropriate level.
After the food is pasteurized, if the food is hotter than 130ºF, the spores cannot germinate and multiply, regardless of time.
One can hold / tenderize for 24 to 48 hours safely. This is also a major feature of sous vide.
If the cooking temperature is 130 to 150ºF, there is an additional benefit. The enzymes are very active, and the meat becomes very tender.
At this point, the spore is activated (pasteurization has no kill effect on spores, it activates spores); so, cooling becomes a critical control procedure.
The target spore for cooling is Clostridium perfringens. It must be controlled so that there is less than 1 to 10 increase in population during cooling.
To assure safety, cooling must be less than 6 hours from 130 to 41ºF. This is easily done for most sous vide products if they are less than 2 inches thick in an proper ice bath.
The recommendation for a proper ice bath is: ratio of 1lb ice to 1lb product, topped off with cold tap water. Agitation will increase the effect of a rapid chill process.
It limits roasts to about 5 pounds. After the cooling to 41ºF, C. perfringens cannot multiply, and the target spore for storage is Bacillus cereus for all food except fish. Holding at 41ºF controls B. cereus.
For cooked fish, there is a critical limit of 37.4ºF to prevent the non-proteolytic C. botulinum on the fish from growing. If cooked fish is to be stored after cooling, it should be frozen or held in ice at less than 37.4ºF, or served within 7 days if held at 41ºF.
Before storing, label vacuum-sealed bags with expiration date and contents.
For practical purposes, if the preceding instructions are followed there is probably no significant reason to hold sous vide product for more than 7 days.
If the recipe includes inhibitors, such as salt or acidity, food can be stored up to 45 days, as long as temperature is meat and poultry is 41ºF or colder, or fish and seafood is less than 37.4F (3.0ºC).
Only spores or some surviving spoilage organisms can multiply, and temperature is the critical control.
Warm (reheating) and serve.
Reheating is not for safety; it is a quality factor to meet consumer desires.
The food is safe if the preceding instructions are followed, and the food can be eaten cold from the pouch or removed from the pouch and browned and heated to suit the consumer.
When reheating cooked food, simply bring water bath back to desired serving temperature and apply time needed for core to reach temperature.
Always measure the internal temperature of foods before serving. You can re-seal a pouch and continue cooking if necessary.
If reheated in the bag, consider that spores or some surviving spoilage organisms can multiply. Temperature is the critical control.
A major safety advantage of sous vide is that it was pasteurized in the package, so there is no chance of contamination of the product by vegetative pathogens in storage after cooling.
Frozen, cooked foods must thaw under refrigeration (41°F or below) and reheated upon complete thaw, prior to consumption.
Children, elderly and expectant mothers and those with compromised immune systems should not consume raw or undercooked foods.
Many temperatures listed on this website (www.polyscienceculinary.com) and within PolyScience Sous Vide Professional™ literature, manuals, applications and marketing include “threshold temperatures,” which are considered to be at the low end of FDA required cooking temperatures.
Anyone in these audiences should cook all recipes listed on this website or within PolyScience Sous Vide Professional™ literature, manuals, applications and marketing 2°C/4°F higher than listed in the recipe and for 5% more time (Calculator) to ensure proper cooking temperatures and pathogenic reduction. For further information of accepted safe cooking temperatures, please visit www.FDA.gov
The 7th Annual StarChefs.com International Chefs Congress has come and gone. Now that the dust has settled a bit, it’s time for a wrap-up.
The PolyScience Sous Vide Professional™ CLASSIC Series
The PolyScience Sous Vide Professional™ CLASSIC PLUS
The PolyScience Sous Vide Professional™ ARTIST Series
The Sous Vide Toolbox™ app for iOS
PolyScience wins again! From left: Joe Strybel, Philip Preston, Christoph Milz
From left: Philip Preston, Christoph Milz, Joe Strybel – PolyScience. Antoinette Bruno and Will Blunt – Star Chefs.
Chef Matt Lightner – Atera
Chef Matt Lightner – Sous Vide Nature vs. Nurture
Chef Matt Lightner – Atera
Brandon Dearden – Aureole, Las Vegas
Pastry Chef Luis Villavelazquez – Les Elements Patisserie, San Francisco
Chef Luis Villavelazquez
We landed on Saturday morning. It was raining. It didn’t matter. Our heads were filled with anticipation and excitement. The ICC is a one-of-a-kind event offering face-to-face, hands-on exposure to some of the most unique equipment and techniques in the culinary world. Chefs, mixologists and industry professionals from every corner of the globe converge on the Park Avenue Armory for three days of what can only be described as culinary rock & roll.
If this is rock & roll, it’s time to set the stage.
We wanted to go big this year. ICC saw a completely new booth set-up for us. The towering crown of the PolyScience booth could be clearly seen from every corner of the Armory. Before the covers could come off and the last cable could get plugged in, we had waves of fans gathering to get a look. Around this centerpiece, we set our newest and best circulators, giving the first glimpses of the newly designed Sous Vide Professional™ CLASSIC, CLASSIC PLUS and ARTIST Series immersion circulators, along with some stunning (and remarkably efficient) stainless steel and polycarbonate integrated bath systems. Follow PolyScience on Facebook and be the first to know when these incredible new circulators start rolling off our production line.
The Sous Vide Professional™ CHEF and CREATIVE Series enjoyed their moments in the spotlight, as well. If being on stage, powering presentations for some of the world’s mostinfluential chefs wasn’t enough, the circulators were scattered around the Congress, helping cook Iberico Pork, Australian Lamb and ORA King Salmon (with a cameo from The Smoking Gun™). Thanks to all the chefs who spread the love and featured PolyScience in their presentations and booths!
Four monitors displayed our Sous Vide Toolbox™ application for iOS. iPads were set up around the booth, allowing ICC attendees to test-drive the Sous Vide Toolbox™. The app was nominated for a StarChefs Innovator Award and was up against some stiff competition. The votes were tallied and WE WON! Thank you to all that voted and thank you to all that have bought and used the app. We would like to send a special thanks to Darren Vengroff, the lead developer of the Sous Vide Toolbox™. His groundwork in building the application has given us room to grow and run. The world of sous vide is going to change greatly because of this mobile application, demystifying thermal conductivity and making sous vide both safe and easy to understand, for any level of user.
PolyScience presents: Nature and Sous Vide Nurture Chef Matt Lightner of Atera – New York, NY
Sous vide novices and experts both walked away with something after Day 2’s workshop with Matt Lightner. He went through the benefits of wrapping bone-in proteins with aluminum foil before vacuum-sealing (to prevent bone punctures), controlling the salt content before sous vide via brining, and the dangers posed by air-exposed sous vide bags during the long cooking process (“it usually happens at night when you’re not at the restaurant”). But the coolest technique was “sous vide searing,” which Lightner explained is essentially dropping vacuum-sealed protein in an 85˚C water bath for a minute to seal in the flavors. Lightner merged his high-tech machinery with his Portland herbage to create an amazing Australian lamb neck dish. The fat and meat in the lamb neck, once cooked sous vide, melted together to form almost a pâté-like consistency, and the wheatgrass emulsion (made using coddled eggs), wheat berries, nasturtium, dried cedar salt, and sorrel added grassy and acidic notes that really brightened the dish.
Excerpt courtesy of StarChefs.com with contributions by Emily Bell, Jessica Dukes, Caroline Hatchett, Nicholas Rummell, and Rachel Willard
The Chef with the PolyScience Tattoo
It’s a fact, chefs love ink. We’ve seen plenty of chef knives, whisks, spoons and even a strip of bacon emblazoned across forearms. When Brandon Dearden – Sous Chef at Aureole, Las Vegas, came up to our booth and revealed a calligraphic “Sous Vide” on the inside of his left bicep, we were all in shock. “Sous vide has changed my life,” said Dearden. “No other method has changed my perspective on cuisine, quite like sous vide has…I’ve also seen too many chef knife tattoos.”
We thought that was it. Not quite. Our jaws dropped when Pastry Chef Luis Villavelazquez – Les Elements Patisserie, San Francisco, took our temporary tattoo design from two years ago and decided to make it more permanent. The old-school, nautical-inspired design that we slapped on t-shirts and temporary tattoos now sits comfortably on Villavelazquez’s right tricep. “I already had these old-school designs, but something was missing right here. (Points to right tricep). When I saw the tattoos you were handing out a couple years ago, I knew where that was going…I also burned it on a sheet pan this week.”
Thanks to Brandon and Luis for rocking sous vide and PolyScience.
Every time we meet with chefs from around the globe, we get inspired to try new things. Hopefully, our equipment brings out the creativity to keep pushing the boundaries of what we declare to be cuisine. At ICC, we share stories and react spontaneously in moments of pure, uninhibited inspiration.
We poured store bought Bloody Mary mix into our Rotary Vacuum Evaporator. The distillate had the powerful aroma of the base and a smooth, balanced flavor profile. We looked at the other flask and saw something even better. Ketchup. Not only was it a pretty tasty ketchup, it smacked of Worcestershire and celery. A powerful wallop of spice snuck up on the back of the palette. We stopped over by our neighbors at Waring Commercial for some of Sam Mason’s pomme frites. When Jeffrey Steingarten dipped his first fry, we thought we were doomed. Then he went back for seconds.
A “from-scratch” Bloody Mary Ketchup recipe awaits you here.
Thank you to Antoinette Bruno, Will Blunt and the entire StarChefs.com team. Special thanks to Alvin Schultz, Matt Lightner, Dave Arnold, Sat Bains, Jeremiah Bullfrog, Brandon Dearden, Francis Derby, Wylie Dufresne, Dirk Flanigan, Greg Grossman, Johnny Iuzzini, Marty Knoten, Hervé Malivert, Francisco Migoya, Tim Mussig, Ramon Perez, John Sconzo, Jeffrey Steingarten, Alex Talbot, Luis Villavelazquez, Jamie Watson, Cuisine Solutions, iSi North America, JB Prince Company, Minipack America, ŌRA KING Salmon, Randell/Unified Brands, Williams-Sonoma and all the other fine folks that made it possible. Until next year…thank you!
For a comprehensive wrap-up from StarChefs.com, click here.
PolyScience is excited to support ChefSteps, the online culinary school led by Chris Young, Grant Crilly, and Ryan Matthew Smith — all alumni of the Modernist Cuisine team. Master techniques of traditional and modernist cooking through practical, hands-on demonstrations with detailed step-by-step explanations. Learn the why’s behind the how’s from experts who bring the science of cooking to life in a compelling and practical way. Whether you are a professional chef, a culinary student, a cooking enthusiast or a curious cook, ChefSteps is for you.
ChefSteps has launched a beta preview of their initial course, a comprehensive study of the sous vide method.
Read more about ChefSteps on their blog.
We’ve received a lot of inquiries about this process, but…we’re not done yet!
The idea here is to approach the brewing process from a different angle. PolyScience is a leader in temperature control and this is a prime area to flex a little of that precision and know-how.
If it’s been a while since grade school, here’s a refresher on the Scientific Method:
Ask a Question Can the sous vide technique efficiently yield beer? If so, are there any notable improvements to flavor, mouthfeel, yield and ABV?
Do Background Research There have been few attempts at sous vide brewing and there’s very little information available on previous trials.
Construct a Hypothesis Sous vide beer brewing will yield energy efficient processes and will have no noticeable effect on flavor, mouthfeel, yield and ABV.
Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment Five, individual gallon batches will be produced. Two are controls. Of those two, one will be barrel aged using the Sonicprep™ – just for fun. The remaining three are all made using the sous vide approach. These three present different scalings of ingredients and one will also be barrel aged with the Sonicprep.™
Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion TBD
Communicate Your Results So far, the hops were picked and dried, the grains were mashed, the wort got hopped up and the yeast was pitched. Now, we have to sit tight for a bit and enjoy the gentle bubbles coming out of the air locks. We’ll continue to update throughout the experiment. Cheers!
Wyeast #1056 American Ale Yeast. (775 ml Starter – 155 ml/gal)
Optimum temperature: 60–72°F
5 oz (141.75 grams – 28.35 g/gal) Priming Sugar
5 Gallons of Bottled, Distilled Water – Divided 1 gal/batch
Here’s the scoop:
The Sous Vide IPA was mellow, noticeably smoother. Aggressive hop additions did little to create the punch we were looking for. The traditional boiled batches were incredibly hoppy with enamel-stripping bitter and grassy flavors. The same recipe via sous vide had a smooth hop profile, but was leaning towards a Wit in mouthfeel. The first sip of the Sous Vide IPA tasted rather flavorless at first. After cleansing the pallet with a few more swigs, the sous vide effect revealed itself. Due to the lower temperatures, the theory is that the lupulin could not be fully extracted. Boiling temperatures are consistently required for such extraction, although it’s been quite difficult locating a credible answer on this extraction process and temperature requirements. Most sources simply suggest to boil the hops, however, we know that boiling temperature is directly related to altitude. So, is it safe to say that a beer brewed at higher elevations would be mellower than that of something brewed at sea level?
Overall opinion? Sous vide beer is not perfect, but with proper balancing, the process is promising.
This recipe is divided due to the large volume of liquids required. The key is to use the maximum vacuum bag size, but few are able to accomodate volumes larger than 1.5 gallons. If a large enough vaccum bag is not available, add the full mash recipe to the vacuum bag and fill with distilled water, with enough room to still vacuum seal. The remaining water can be added after the mash. If using milled grains, strain the mash. We prefer using biodiesel bags for this process, but Chinois/Fine Mesh Strainers can be substituted.
After straining, funnel the mash into clean and sanitized, open/uncapped 1 gallon carboys. Place the carboys in a circulating water bath at 95°C. The circulating bath must be filled to levels to account for displacement without floating the bottles. Add hop additions as scheduled, via a widemouth funnel. No boil will be reached at this temperature. Allow to heat for 90 minutes.
Once again, strain utilizing a biodiesel bag or fine mesh strainer.
Cool this wort to 22°C/72°F within 60 minutes. Pitch your yeast. For this recipe we utilized a yeast starter, but pitching active yeast in a smack-pack will do just fine. Ferment at 19.4°C/67°F for two weeks.
After two weeks, you may choose to re-rack into secondary fermentation or head straight to priming and bottling.
For more information on the brewing process, click here.
We’re happy that so many of our customers are loving the Sous Vide Toolbox™ for iPhone and iPad. The versatile app allows users to cook sous vide, confidently and safely.
Through complex thermal conductivity and log reduction algorithms, the Sous Vide Toolbox™ helps determine the optimal sous vide cooking and re-heating times for a variety of food at different temperatures.
The Sous Vide Toolbox™ is now available through the Apple App Store for download.
Cuisine Technology Quicklinks
Sous Vide Precise Temperature Cooking Systems™ Controllers